Presidents of the Hancock Era
The Hancock enjoyed nearly a 32 year Naval Career. During this time she served under six esteemed Presidents and one not-so-esteemed, who governed our Nation in Wartime and Peacetime.
It seems appropriate that we should give some Credit and attention to these fine leaders, who lead our nation through some very poignant and dramatic times in our National History. Though President Nixon made some bad choices in his Presidency, please forgive the Yeoman if he expresses a moment of political incorrectness, by stating his opinion that he feels Mr. Nixon was one of the finest Statesmen this nation has seen in recent times, but that's only my opinion.
As it's appropriate to remember those fine men who served our nation in the Armed Forces, and in our case, aboard the USS Hancock CV/CVA-19, we need to remember those fine leaders who sent us on our missions; sometimes dangerous, often not so; but none-the-less, important, since the Hancock has been a leader in the Peace Keeping Mission of our Navy, we collectively are proud of those men and women who have played such an important role in the process of keeping the peace, and in the World War II Era, for fighting so hard and working towards our National survival. To all involved, we say a hearty THANK YOU!
It's important that we put politics aside occasionally, to express our gratitude to God for providing this great nation, men for their times; men of valor and great vision, as leaders of the greatest Nation on the face of the earth!
Franklin Delano Roosevelt - 32nd President of these United States,
and the only President to have served four terms before dying in office
Important dates in Franklin Roosevelt's life
- 1882 (Jan. 30) Born in Hyde Park, N.Y.
- 1905 (March 17) Married Eleanor Roosevelt.
- 1913 Appointed assistant secretary of the Navy.
- 1920 Ran unsuccessfully for Vice President of the United States.
- 1921 Stricken with polio.
- 1928 Elected governor of New York.
- 1932 Elected President of the United States.
- 1936 Reelected President.
- 1940 Reelected President.
- 1944 Reelected President.
- 1945 (April 12) Died in Warm Springs, Ga.
The world of President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Nazi leader Adolf Hitler ruled Germany from 1933 until his death in 1945. His expansionist policies led to World War II, and his anti-Semitism resulted in the killing of about 6 million Jews in Germany and German-controlled countries.
Dust storms in the Great Plains in the 1930's blew away precious topsoil and led to the ruin of many farm families. Some migrated to California. Their plight was told in John Steinbeck's novel, The Grapes of Wrath, published in 1939.
Labor leader John L. Lewis formed the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) in 1935 to organize workers in the steel, rubber, automobile, and other industries.
Italian dictator Benito Mussolini conquered Ethiopia in 1936 and joined with Germany and Japan in World War II.
Edward VIII gave up the throne of Great Britain in 1936 to marry Wallis Warfield Simpson, an American divorcee.
American track star Jesse Owens became a hero when he won four gold medals at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.
The Spanish Civil War raged from 1936 to 1939 and ended in a victory for the rebel forces of Francisco Franco.
American aviator Amelia Earhart disappeared over the Pacific in 1937 during an attempted around-the-world flight.
The "big band" era of popular music featured groups led by Glenn Miller, Count Basie, Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey, and Duke Ellington. Clarinetist Benny Goodman became known as the "King of Swing," and Americans enjoyed such dance crazes as the big apple and the jitterbug.
Research on the atomic bomb advanced after Dec. 2, 1942, when workers at the University of Chicago produced the first artificially created nuclear chain reaction.
Women joined the American work force in unprecedented numbers during World War II. "Rosie the Riveter" was a nickname that symbolized the millions of women working in wartime industries.
Quotations from Franklin D. Roosevelt
Some of Franklin Roosevelt's most famous speeches are quoted or paraphrased in the text of this article. The following are additional quotations from some of his speeches and writings.
"It is common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something."
Source: Speech in Atlanta, Ga., May 22, 1932
"The fate of America cannot depend on any one man. The greatness of America is grounded in principles and not on any single personality."
Source: Speech in New York City, Nov. 5,1932
"Democracy is not a static thing. It is an everlasting march."
Source: Speech in Los Angeles, Oct. 1, 1935
"Nationwide thinking, nationwide planning, and nationwide action are the three great essentials to prevent nationwide crises for future generations to struggle through."
Source: Speech in New York City, April 25, 1936
"I should like to have it said of my first Administration that in it the forces of selfishness and lust for power met their match. I should like to have it said of my second Administration that in it these forces met their master."
Source: Speech in New York City, Oct. 31, 1936
"The test of our progress is not whether we add more to the abundance of those who have much; it is whether we provide enough for those who have too little."
Source: Second Inaugural Address, Jan. 20, 1937
"Our Security is not a matter of weapons alone. The arm that wields them must be strong, the eye that guides them clear, the will that directs them indomitable."
Source: Message to Congress, May 16, 1940
"True individual freedom cannot exist without economic security and independence. People who are hungry and out of a job are the stuff of which dictatorships are made."
Source: Message to Congress, Jan. 11, 1944
Highlights of Roosevelt's administration
- 1933 Congress enacted New Deal recovery measures during the "Hundred Days."
Prohibition was repealed.
- 1935 The Social Security Act and the first Neutrality Act were passed.
- 1937 Roosevelt's "court-packing" recommendations started the Supreme Court controversy.
- 1939 The United States began selling arms to friendly countries on a "cash-and-carry" basis.
- 1940 Congress passed the Selective Service Act.
- 1941 The Atlantic Charter was issued.
- (Dec. 7) Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.
- 1942 Twenty-six nations signed the Declaration of the United Nations.
- 1943 Roosevelt and Churchill announced the goal of unconditional surrender by the Axis powers. Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin conferred in Teheran, Iran.
- 1944 (June 6) The Allies invaded Normandy, France.
- 1945 Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at Yalta, in the Crimea.
Important dates in Truman's life
- 1884 (May 8) Born in Lamar, Mo.
- 1917-1919 Served in the U.S. Army during World War I.
- 1919 (June 28) Married Elizabeth Virginia Wallace.
- 1922 Elected judge of Jackson County, Missouri.
- 1934 Elected to the United States Senate.
- 1944 Elected Vice President of the United States.
- 1945 (April 12) Became President of the United States.
- 1948 Elected President of the United States.
- 1972 (Dec. 26) Died in Kansas City, Mo.
The world of President Truman
The first fully electronic digital computer was built by engineers at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946.
"Iron Curtain" was a phrase first used by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe the barriers against the West set up by Communist governments in Eastern Europe.
Fears of Communist infiltration in postwar America led to congressional hearings, "blacklists" of persons in the entertainment industry, and the controversial spy trials of Alger Hiss and Ethel and Julius Rosenberg.
British India was divided into two independent nations--India and Pakistan--in 1947.
The first supersonic flight took place in 1947. U.S. Air Force Captain Charles Yeager flew a Bell X-1 rocket plane to break the sound barrier.
Jackie Robinson became the first black baseball player in the major leagues when he joined the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947.
Israel was founded on May 14, 1948. The first Arab-Israeli war began the next day, when Arab nations attacked Israel.
Civil war in Greece ended in 1949 with the defeat of Communist-led rebels.
The Communist People's Republic of China was founded in 1949.
The first nationwide telecast showed President Truman opening the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco in 1951.
Elizabeth II became queen of the United Kingdom in 1952.
War and its aftermath were major concerns. On Aug 6, 1945, the United States dropped the first atomic bomb used in warfare on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. World War II ended soon afterward. In 1948 and 1949, the Allies staged a massive airlift to deliver food and other necessities to West Berlin, which had been blockaded by the Soviet Union.
Quotations from Harry S. Truman
The following quotations come from some of Harry Truman's speeches and writings.
"The responsibility of great states is to serve and not to dominate the world."
Source: Message to Congress, April 16, 1945
"Sixteen hours ago an American airplane dropped one bomb on Hiroshima ... The force from which the sun draws its power has been loosed upon those who brought war to the Far East."
Source: Address to the nation, August 6, 1945
"I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way."
Source: Speech before Congress, March 12, 1947
"We shall not ... achieve the ideals for which this nation was founded so long as any American suffers discrimination ... If we wish to inspire the peoples of the world whose freedom is in jeopardy, if we wish to restore hope to those who have already lost their civil liberties, ... we must correct the remaining imperfections in our practice of democracy."
Source: Message to Congress, Feb. 2, 1948
"We must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas."
Source: Inaugural Address, Jan. 20, 1949
"Whenever you have an efficient government you have a dictatorship."
Source: Lecture at Columbia University, April 28, 1959
Highlights of Truman's administration
- 1945 (May 7) Germany surrendered to the Allies.
- (July 16) The first atomic bomb was tested.
- (Sept. 2) Japan's surrender ended World War II.
- (Oct. 24) The United Nations was founded.
- 1947 (May 15) Congress approved the Truman Doctrine.
- (June) Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act over Truman's veto.
- (July) Congress unified the U.S. armed forces.
- 1948 (April 2) Congress approved the Marshall Plan.
- 1949 (April 4) The United States and 11 other nations set up the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Important dates in Eisenhower's life
- 1890 (Oct. 14) Born in Denison, Tex.
- 1915 Graduated from West Point.
- 1916 (July 1) Married Mamie Geneva Doud.
- 1942 Named commanding general of U.S. forces in the European Theater of Operations.
- 1943 Named supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force in Europe.
- 1944 (June 6) Organized the Allied invasion of Europe.
- 1950 Named supreme commander of NATO forces in Europe.
- 1952 Elected President of the United States.
- 1956 Reelected President.
- 1961 Retired to his farm in Gettysburg, Pa.
- 1969 (March 28) Died in a hospital in Washington, D.C.
The world of President Eisenhower
The Korean War ended, after three years of fighting, with the signing of a truce agreement on July 27, 1953.
Controlled nuclear energy came into use. The U.S. Navy launched the first nuclear-powered vessel, the submarine Nautilus, in 1954. The first large-scale nuclear power plant began operations in 1956 at Calder Hall in England.
Segregated public schools were outlawed by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954. In a landmark case, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the court ruled that racially segregated schools were unconstitutional.
Rock 'n' roll became the leading form of popular music. A band called Bill Haley and His Comets recorded one of the first rock hits, "Rock Around the Clock," in 1955.
The merger of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in 1955 united the two leading U.S. labor federations.
The first polio vaccine, developed by the American medical researcher Jonas E. Salk, was declared safe in 1955.
The Vietnam War began in 1957, when Viet Cong guerrillas started to attack the South Vietnamese government.
The St. Lawrence Seaway, linking the Atlantic Ocean and Great Lakes, was completed by the United States and Canada in 1959.
Fidel Castro took over the government of Cuba in 1959 and soon turned the country into a Communist state.
New inventions included the laser, a device that produces narrow beam of intense light; and xerography, an ink-less copying process perfected by the Xerox Corporation.
The Space Age began on Oct. 4, 1957. That day, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik I, into orbit around the earth.
The U.S. flag grew from 48 to 50 stars during Eisenhower's presidency. The new stars represented Alaska and Hawaii, which became the 49th and 50th states in 1959.
Quotations from Dwight D. Eisenhower
The following quotations come from some of Dwight D. Eisenhower's speeches.
"Soldiers, sailors and airmen of the Allied Expeditionary Force. You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade ... I have full confidence in your courage, devotion to duty and skill in battle. We will accept nothing less than full Victory!"
Source: Radio broadcast to Allied forces, June 5, 1944, the day before D-Day
"... in the final choice, a soldier's pack is not so heavy a burden as a prisoner's chains."
Source: First Inaugural Address, Jan. 20, 1953
"We know that when censorship goes beyond the observance of common decency ... it quickly becomes, for us, a deadly danger."
Source: Speech at Columbia University, May 31, 1954
"... what counts is not necessarily the size of the dog in the fight--it's the size of the fight in the dog."
Source: Speech to the Republican National Committee, Jan. 31, 1958
"In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex."
Source: Farewell address, Jan. 17, 1961
Important dates in Kennedy's life
- 1917 (May 29) Born in Brookline, Mass.
- 1940 Graduated from Harvard University.
- 1941-1945 Served in the U.S. Navy during World War II.
- 1946 Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
- 1952 Elected to the U.S. Senate.
- 1953 (Sept. 12) Married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier.
- 1960 Elected President of the United States.
- 1963 (Nov. 22) Assassinated in Dallas, Tex.
The world of President Kennedy
Amendment 23 to the Constitution was adopted in 1961. It gave residents of the District of Columbia the right to vote in presidential elections.
The first person in space was the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin. He orbited the earth in 1961. In 1962, astronaut John H. Glenn, Jr., became the first American to orbit the earth.
Literature published during Kennedy's Administration included Franny and Zooey (1961) by J. D. Salinger, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1962) by Edward Albee, and The Group (1963) by Mary McCarthy.
Adolf Eichmann, a top Nazi war criminal, was hanged in Israel in 1962 for his part in the massacre of European Jews during World War II.
Algeria won independence from France in 1962 after more than seven years of bloody fighting.
The communications satellite Telstar I was launched by the United States in 1962. It was the first satellite to relay television programs between America and Europe.
Silent Spring, Rachel Carson's book on the wasteful and destructive use of pesticides, helped launch the United States environmental protection movement in 1962.
The Supreme Court ruled in 1962-1963 that official prayers and Bible reading in public schools were unconstitutional.
South Vietnamese generals overthrew and killed President Ngo Dinh Diem in 1963.
Construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961 divided East and West Berlin, closing the route used by millions of Germans to flee Communist rule.
Quotations from John F. Kennedy
The following quotations come from some of Kennedy's speeches and writings.
For without belittling the courage with which men have died, we should not forget those acts of courage with which men ... have lived ... A man does what he must--in spite of personal consequences, in spite of obstacles and dangers and pressures--and that is the basis of all human morality.
Source: Profiles in Courage, 1956.
And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country.
Source: Inaugural Address, Jan. 20, 1961.
Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans, ... unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.
Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.
Source: Inaugural Address, Jan. 20, 1961.
Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.
Source: Inaugural Address, Jan. 20, 1961.
No one has been barred on account of his race from fighting or dying for America--there are no "white" or "colored" signs on the foxholes or graveyards of battle.
Source: Message to Congress on proposed civil rights bill, June 19, 1963.
All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and, therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words "Ich bin ein Berliner" ("I am a Berliner").
Source: Address at City Hall in West Berlin, Germany, June 26, 1963.
When power leads man toward arrogance, poetry reminds him of his limitations. When power narrows the areas of man's concern, poetry reminds him of the richness and diversity of his existence. When power corrupts, poetry cleanses. For art establishes the basic human truth which must serve as the touchstone of our judgment.
Source: Address at Amherst College, Oct. 26, 1963.
Important dates in Lyndon Johnson's life
- 1908 (Aug. 27) Born near Stonewall, Texas.
- 1930 Graduated from Southwest Texas State Teachers College (now Southwest Texas State University).
- 1931 Went to Washington, D.C., as a congressional secretary.
- 1934 (Nov. 17) Married Claudia Alta (Lady Bird) Taylor.
- 1935 Became National Youth administrator for Texas.
- 1937 Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
- 1941-1942 Served in the U.S. Navy during World War II.
- 1948 Elected to the U.S. Senate.
- 1955 Became Senate majority leader.
- 1960 Elected vice president of the United States.
- 1963 (Nov. 22) Sworn in as president of the United States in Dallas after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
- 1964 Elected to a full term as president.
- 1968 Announced that he would not run for reelection.
- 1973 (Jan. 22) Died of a heart attack suffered at his ranch in Johnson City, Texas.
The world of President Johnson
The Civil Rights Act of 1964, one of the nation's strongest civil rights laws, prohibited discrimination because of color, race, national origin, religion, or sex.
The Beatles, a British rock music group, toured the United States in 1964, creating a sensation everywhere they went.
Medicare, a federal health insurance program for the elderly, was established by Congress in 1965.
Riots erupted in the black ghettos of many U.S. cities. The most destructive riots included those in the Watts section of Los Angeles in 1965 and in Detroit in 1967.
The Second Vatican Council, a meeting of Roman Catholic Church leaders, ended in 1965. It issued a series of proclamations to modernize and revitalize the church.
The Vietnam War expanded. American combat troops entered the war in 1965, and United States planes started to bomb North Vietnam. Many Americans opposed the new U.S. role, and antiwar protests began to break out.
The Women's Liberation Movement gained strength. The National Organization for Women (NOW), founded in 1966, and other groups fought to end discrimination against women.
The Six-Day War between Israel and three Arab nations--Egypt, Jordan, and Syria--broke out on June 5, 1967, and ended on June 10. Israel gained control of Jerusalem and the surrounding area, the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights, and the Sinai Peninsula.
Assassinations in 1968 took the lives of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., and Senator Robert F. Kennedy of New York.
Quotations from Lyndon B. Johnson
The following quotations come from some of Lyndon B. Johnson's speeches and writings.
"We have suffered a loss that cannot be weighed. For me, it is a deep personal tragedy. I know that the world shares the sorrow that Mrs. Kennedy and her family bear. I will do my best. That is all I can do. I ask for your help--and God's."
Source: Speech on Nov. 22, 1963, after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy
"All I have I would have given gladly not to be standing here today."
Source: First address to Congress as President, Nov. 27, 1963
"This administration today, here and now, declares unconditional war on poverty in America. ... It will not be a short or easy struggle, no single weapon or strategy will suffice, but we shall not rest until that war is won."
Source: State of the Union message on Jan. 8, 1964
"The challenge of the next half century is whether we have the wisdom to use that wealth to enrich and elevate our national life. ... we have the opportunity to move not only toward the rich society and the powerful society, but upward to the Great Society."
Source: Speech at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., May 22, 1964
"Poverty has many roots but the tap root is ignorance."
Source: Message to Congress on Jan. 12, 1965
"... I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your President."
Source: Television broadcast on March 31, 1968
Important dates in Nixon's life
- 1913 (January 9) Born in Yorba Linda, Calif.
- 1934 Graduated from Whittier College.
- 1940 (June 21) Married Thelma Catherine (Pat) Ryan.
- 1942-1946 Served in the U.S. Navy during World War II.
- 1946 Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
- 1948 Reelected to the House.
- 1950 Elected to the U.S. Senate.
- 1952 Elected Vice President of the United States.
- 1956 Reelected Vice President.
- 1960 Defeated for President by John F. Kennedy.
- 1962 Defeated for governor of California by Governor Edmund G. (Pat) Brown.
- 1968 Elected President of the United States.
- 1972 Reelected President.
- 1974 (August 9) Resigned as President.
- 1994 (April 22) Died in New York City.
The world of President Nixon
Antiwar protests on college campuses and elsewhere disrupted the nation during the late 1960's and early 1970's. In November 1969, about 250,000 people gathered in Washington, D.C., in the largest antiwar demonstration in U.S. history.
The women's liberation movement gained strength, as women demanded equality in employment and other areas.
Concern for the environment developed as air and water pollution became increasingly serious problems.
Golda Meir, a former Milwaukee schoolteacher, became prime minister of Israel in 1969. She served until 1974.
School desegregation rulings by federal courts in the early 1970's resulted in the busing of students from one neighborhood to another in a number of U.S. cities.
China joined the United Nations in 1971.
The minimum voting age in all U.S. elections was lowered from 21 to 18 by the 26th Amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1971.
Civil war in Pakistan in 1971 resulted in the creation of Bangladesh from the territory that had been East Pakistan.
Revolution in Chile in 1973 led to the death of President Salvador Allende. Allende had been the first Marxist elected democratically to head a nation in the Western Hemisphere.
The fourth Arab-Israeli war erupted in October 1973, when Egypt and Syria attacked Israel.
An Arab oil embargo reduced supplies of petroleum to the United States and other nations in 1973 and 1974.
Watergate stunned the nation as it developed into the biggest political scandal in U.S. history. It led to the resignations of top White House aides and, eventually, Nixon himself.
Quotations from Richard M. Nixon
The following quotations come from some of Richard Nixon's speeches and writings.
"Crises can indeed be agony. But it is the exquisite agony which a man might not want to experience again--yet would not for the world have missed."
Source: Introduction to Six Crises, published in 1962
"We have found ourselves rich in goods, but ragged in spirit; reaching with magnificent precision for the moon, but falling into raucous discord on earth. We are caught in war, wanting peace. We are torn by divisions, wanting unity."
Source: First Inaugural Address, Jan. 20, 1969
"If when the chips are down, the world's most powerful nation ... acts like a pitiful, helpless giant, the forces of totalitarianism and anarchy will threaten free nations ... throughout the world."
Source: Speech announcing invasion of Cambodia, April 30, 1970
"Let us reject the narrow visions of those who would tell us that we are evil because we are not yet perfect ... that all the sweat and toil and sacrifice that have gone into the building of America were for naught because the building is not yet done. Let us see that the path we are traveling is wide, with room in it for all of us, and that its direction is toward a better nation in a more peaceful world."
Source: State of the Union Address to Congress, Jan. 20, 1972
"Always give your best, never get discouraged, never be petty; always remember, others may hate you. Those who hate you don't win unless you hate them. And then you destroy yourself."
Source: Final speech before leaving office, Aug. 9, 1974
Ford had been Vice President for only eight months when he took office as President. Nixon had appointed him to succeed Vice President Spiro T. Agnew, who resigned while under criminal investigation for graft. Ford was the first person to be appointed to fill a vacancy in the vice presidency. He also was the only person to serve as both Vice President and President who did not win election to either office. In the 1976 election, Ford was defeated in his bid for a full term as President by former Governor Jimmy Carter of Georgia, his Democratic opponent.
The Vietnam War ended in April 1975, after Communist North Vietnam conquered South Vietnam. That same month, Communist troops also took over Cambodia, which borders Vietnam on the west. Shortly before South Vietnam fell, Ford asked Congress to give that nation more than $700 million in emergency military aid. But Congress felt the aid could not save South Vietnam and rejected the request.
Ford arranged for the evacuation of refugees from South Vietnam. (Operations Eagle Pull & Frequent Wind, where the Hancock was fully involved).
About 100,000 Vietnamese, Laotian and Cambodians came to the United States.
The Mayaguez seizure. In May 1975, Cambodian Communist troops seized the Mayaguez, a U.S. merchant ship, in the Gulf of Thailand. Ford sent 200 U.S. Marines to the area, and they quickly recaptured the ship and rescued its 39 crew members.
Important dates in Ford's life
- 1913 (July 14) Born in Omaha, Nebr.
- 1935 Graduated from the University of Michigan.
- 1942-1946 Served in the U.S. Navy during World War II.
- 1948 (Oct. 15) Married Elizabeth (Betty) Bloomer.
- 1948 Elected to the first of 13 successive terms in the U.S. House of Representatives.
- 1965 Became House minority leader.
- 1973 (Dec. 6) Became Vice President of the United States.
- 1974 (Aug. 9) Succeeded to the presidency.
- 1976 Lost presidential election to Jimmy Carter.
The world of President Ford
Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie was deposed by military leaders in 1974, after a 44-year reign.
The Soviet Union deported Alexander Solzhenitsyn, a Nobel Prize-winning novelist, in 1974. He later settled in the United States.
The continuing drama of the Watergate scandal reached a climax in 1975, when top members of the Nixon Administration were found guilty of perjury, conspiracy, and obstruction of justice. Former Attorney General John Mitchell and presidential aides John Ehrlichman and H. R. Haldeman were among the persons sentenced to prison.
Portugal's colonial rule in Africa ended in 1975, when it granted independence to Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique, and Sao Tome and Principe.
Juan Carlos I became king of Spain in 1975, following the death of Francisco Franco, Spain's dictator since 1939.
The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project accomplished its goal of cooperation in space in July 1975. A U.S. spacecraft docked with a Soviet spacecraft in space, and crew members from both vehicles conducted joint scientific experiments.
Women were admitted to the military academies of the United States Army, Air Force, and Navy for the first time in 1976.
The deaths of Chinese Communist leaders Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai in 1976 marked the end of an era. The two men had led China since 1949.
The movement for an independent Quebec gained strength in Canada in 1976, when a separatist political party won control of the provincial government.
The Vietnam War ended in a Communist victory in 1975. Thousands of South Vietnamese refugees fled from their homeland in a U.S. sponsored airlift.
A fleet of tall ships from various nations sailed to New York City harbor in 1976 to take part in festivities marking the bicentennial of the founding of the United States.